Reference SummaryHeikkinen P, Radiat Res 2001 Dec;156(6):775-85

Title

Effects of mobile phone radiation on x-ray-induced tumorigenesis in mice.

Authors

Heikkinen P; Kosma VM; Hongisto T; Huuskonen H; Hyysalo P; Komulainen H; Kumlin T; Lahtinen T; Lang S; Puranen L; Juutilainen J

Journal

Radiat Res

Volume

156

Issue

6

Year

2001

Pages

775-85

Abstract

Heikkinen, P., Kosma, V-M., Hongisto, T., Huuskonen, H., Hyysalo, P., Komulainen, H., Kumlin, T., Lahtinen, T., Lang, S., Puranen, L. and Juutilainen, J. Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on X-Ray-Induced Tumorigenesis in Mice. Radiat. Res. 156, 775-785 (2001).The increased use of mobile phones has raised the question of possible health effects of such devices, particularly the risk of cancer. It seems unlikely that the low-level radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted by them would damage DNA directly, but its ability to act as a tumor promoter is less well characterized. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of low-level RF radiation on the development of cancer initiated in mice by ionizing radiation. Two hundred female CBA/S mice were randomized into four equal groups at the age of 3 to 5 weeks. The mice in all groups except the cage-control group were exposed to ionizing radiation at the beginning of the study and then to RF radiation for 1.5 h per day, 5 days a week for 78 weeks. One group was exposed to continuous NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephones)-type frequency-modulated RF radiation at a frequency of 902.5 MHz and a nominal average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.5 W/kg. Another group was exposed to pulsed GSM (Global System for Mobile)-type RF radiation (carrier-wave frequency 902.4 MHz, pulse frequency 217 Hz) at a nominal average SAR of 0.35 W/kg. The control animals were sham-exposed. Body weight, clinical signs, and food and water consumption were recorded regularly. Hematological examinations and histopathological analyses of all lesions and major tissues were performed on all animals. The RF-radiation exposures did not increase the incidence of any neoplastic lesion significantly. We conclude that the results do not provide evidence for cancer promotion by RF radiation emitted by mobile phones.

Links

11741502 – National Library of Medicine/PubMed

Strain Notes

Strain Note
CBA NOTE: These inbred mice were described as "CBA/S" but the "S" lab code is not registered to any of the authors nor to the stated sources of the mice.
These mice were specific-pathogen free.
"The stock originated at the Swedish University of Agriculture, Uppsala, Sweden."
"The test animals were bred at the National Public Health Institute, Laboratory of Toxicology, Kuopio, Finland."

Models

Strain Model Name Treatment Agent(s) Organ Affected Frequency Model Details
CBA Adrenal gland - Cortex adenoma Adrenal gland - Cortex

0

CBA Adrenal gland - Cortex adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Cortex

2.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Cortex adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Cortex

2.0 - 4.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Cortex lesion Adrenal gland - Cortex

16

CBA Adrenal gland - Cortex lesion
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Cortex

2.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Cortex lesion
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Cortex

2.0 - 6.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla hyperplasia Adrenal gland - Medulla

2.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla hyperplasia
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Medulla

6.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla hyperplasia
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Medulla

2.0 - 4.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla pheochromocytoma Adrenal gland - Medulla

2.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla pheochromocytoma
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Medulla

10

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla pheochromocytoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Medulla

0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla pheochromocytoma - benign Adrenal gland - Medulla

2.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla pheochromocytoma - benign
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Medulla

8.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla pheochromocytoma - benign
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Medulla

0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla pheochromocytoma - malignant Adrenal gland - Medulla

0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla pheochromocytoma - malignant
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Medulla

2.0

CBA Adrenal gland - Medulla pheochromocytoma - malignant
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Medulla

0

CBA Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell adenoma Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell

0

CBA Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell

14

CBA Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell

8.0 - 10

CBA Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell hyperplasia Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell

100

CBA Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell hyperplasia
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell

100

CBA Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell hyperplasia
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Adrenal gland - Subcapsular cell

100

CBA Blood vessel hemangioma Subcutis

0

CBA Blood vessel hemangioma
  • ionizing radiation
Subcutis

0

CBA Blood vessel hemangioma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Subcutis

0 - 2.0

CBA Blood vessel hemangiosarcoma Ovary

0

CBA Blood vessel hemangiosarcoma
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary

0

CBA Blood vessel hemangiosarcoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary

0 - 2.0

CBA Eye - Harderian gland adenoma Eye - Harderian gland

20

CBA Eye - Harderian gland adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Eye - Harderian gland

46

CBA Eye - Harderian gland adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Eye - Harderian gland

56 - 60

CBA Eye - Harderian gland carcinoma Eye - Harderian gland

0

CBA Eye - Harderian gland carcinoma
  • ionizing radiation
Eye - Harderian gland

2.0

CBA Eye - Harderian gland carcinoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Eye - Harderian gland

2.0

CBA Eye - Harderian gland hyperplasia Eye - Harderian gland

10

CBA Eye - Harderian gland hyperplasia
  • ionizing radiation
Eye - Harderian gland

26

CBA Eye - Harderian gland hyperplasia
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Eye - Harderian gland

10 - 14

CBA Eye - Harderian gland tumor Eye - Harderian gland

20

CBA Eye - Harderian gland tumor
  • ionizing radiation
Eye - Harderian gland

46

CBA Eye - Harderian gland tumor
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Eye - Harderian gland

58 - 62

CBA Forestomach squamous cell papilloma Forestomach

2.0

CBA Forestomach squamous cell papilloma
  • ionizing radiation
Forestomach

0

CBA Forestomach squamous cell papilloma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Forestomach

0

CBA Kidney adenoma Kidney

0

CBA Kidney adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Kidney

2.0

CBA Kidney adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Kidney

0 - 4.0

CBA Kidney carcinoma Kidney

0

CBA Kidney carcinoma
  • ionizing radiation
Kidney

0

CBA Kidney carcinoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Kidney

0 - 4.0

CBA Kidney hyperplasia - tubular Kidney

8.0

CBA Kidney hyperplasia - tubular
  • ionizing radiation
Kidney

10

CBA Kidney hyperplasia - tubular
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Kidney

8.0 - 14

CBA Kidney tumor Kidney

0

CBA Kidney tumor
  • ionizing radiation
Kidney

2.0

CBA Kidney tumor
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Kidney

4.0

CBA Leukocyte - Monocyte - Macrophage - Histiocyte histiocytic sarcoma Leukocyte - Monocyte - Macrophage - Histiocyte

2.0

CBA Leukocyte - Monocyte - Macrophage - Histiocyte histiocytic sarcoma
  • ionizing radiation
Leukocyte - Monocyte - Macrophage - Histiocyte

4.0

CBA Leukocyte - Monocyte - Macrophage - Histiocyte histiocytic sarcoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Leukocyte - Monocyte - Macrophage - Histiocyte

6.0 - 8.0

CBA Liver foci - basophilic Liver

28

CBA Liver foci - basophilic
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

36

CBA Liver foci - basophilic
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

24 - 34

CBA Liver foci - clear cell Liver

20

CBA Liver foci - clear cell
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

6.0

CBA Liver foci - clear cell
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

0 - 4.0

CBA Liver foci - eosinophilic Liver

6.0

CBA Liver foci - eosinophilic
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

0

CBA Liver foci - eosinophilic
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

4.0

CBA Liver hepatocellular adenoma Liver

14

CBA Liver hepatocellular adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

18

CBA Liver hepatocellular adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

10

CBA Liver hepatocellular carcinoma Liver

2.0

CBA Liver hepatocellular carcinoma
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

8.0

CBA Liver hepatocellular carcinoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

8.0 - 14

CBA Liver hepatocellular tumor Liver

14

CBA Liver hepatocellular tumor
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

22

CBA Liver hepatocellular tumor
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Liver

18 - 24

CBA Lung adenoma Lung

4.0

CBA Lung adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Lung

10

CBA Lung adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Lung

10 - 18

CBA Lung carcinoma Lung

4.0

CBA Lung carcinoma
  • ionizing radiation
Lung

6.0

CBA Lung carcinoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Lung

2.0 - 4.0

CBA Lung hyperplasia Lung

2.0

CBA Lung hyperplasia
  • ionizing radiation
Lung

6.0

CBA Lung hyperplasia
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Lung

8.0 - 10

CBA Lung tumor Lung

8.0

CBA Lung tumor
  • ionizing radiation
Lung

14

CBA Lung tumor
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Lung

12 - 20

CBA Lymph node - Cervical hyperplasia - lymphoid Lymph node - Cervical

0

CBA Lymph node - Cervical hyperplasia - lymphoid
  • ionizing radiation
Lymph node - Cervical

22

CBA Lymph node - Cervical hyperplasia - lymphoid
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Lymph node - Cervical

6.0 - 10

CBA Mesodermal cell/mesoblast sarcoma CNS - Meninges

0

CBA Mesodermal cell/mesoblast sarcoma Mesodermal cell/mesoblast

0

CBA Mesodermal cell/mesoblast sarcoma
  • ionizing radiation
CNS - Meninges

0

CBA Mesodermal cell/mesoblast sarcoma
  • ionizing radiation
Mesodermal cell/mesoblast

0

CBA Mesodermal cell/mesoblast sarcoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
CNS - Meninges

0 - 2.0

CBA Mesodermal cell/mesoblast sarcoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Mesodermal cell/mesoblast

0 - 2.0

CBA Mesothelium mesothelioma Mesothelium

2.0

CBA Mesothelium mesothelioma
  • ionizing radiation
Mesothelium

0

CBA Mesothelium mesothelioma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Mesothelium

0

CBA Ovary - Granulosa cell tumor Ovary - Granulosa cell

0

CBA Ovary - Granulosa cell tumor
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary - Granulosa cell

2.0

CBA Ovary - Granulosa cell tumor
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary - Granulosa cell

2.0 - 4.0

CBA Ovary - Granulosa cell tumor - benign Ovary - Granulosa cell

0

CBA Ovary - Granulosa cell tumor - benign
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary - Granulosa cell

2.0

CBA Ovary - Granulosa cell tumor - benign
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary - Granulosa cell

0 - 2.0

CBA Ovary - Granulosa cell tumor - malignant Ovary - Granulosa cell

0

CBA Ovary - Granulosa cell tumor - malignant
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary - Granulosa cell

0

CBA Ovary - Granulosa cell tumor - malignant
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary - Granulosa cell

2.0

CBA Ovary adenoma - tubulostromal Ovary

0

CBA Ovary adenoma - tubulostromal
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary

46

CBA Ovary adenoma - tubulostromal
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary

46

CBA Ovary hyperplasia - tubulostromal Ovary

4.1

CBA Ovary hyperplasia - tubulostromal
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary

52

CBA Ovary hyperplasia - tubulostromal
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary

52 - 58

CBA Ovary luteoma Ovary

0

CBA Ovary luteoma
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary

0

CBA Ovary luteoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Ovary

0 - 4.0

CBA Pancreas - Acinar cell adenoma Pancreas - Acinar cell

2.0

CBA Pancreas - Acinar cell adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Pancreas - Acinar cell

0

CBA Pancreas - Acinar cell adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Pancreas - Acinar cell

0

CBA Pancreas - Acinar cell hyperplasia Pancreas - Acinar cell

22

CBA Pancreas - Acinar cell hyperplasia
  • ionizing radiation
Pancreas - Acinar cell

16

CBA Pancreas - Acinar cell hyperplasia
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Pancreas - Acinar cell

10 - 22

CBA Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans adenoma Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans

2.0

CBA Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans

0

CBA Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans

0

CBA Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans hyperplasia Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans

35

CBA Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans hyperplasia
  • ionizing radiation
Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans

14

CBA Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans hyperplasia
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans

8.0 - 20

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis adenocarcinoma Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

0

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis adenocarcinoma
  • ionizing radiation
Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

0

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis adenocarcinoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

0 - 2.0

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis adenoma Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

0

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

2.0

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

4.1 - 6.0

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis hyperplasia Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

0

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis hyperplasia
  • ionizing radiation
Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

2.0

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis hyperplasia
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

0 - 8.2

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis tumor Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

0

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis tumor
  • ionizing radiation
Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

2.0

CBA Pituitary gland - Pars distalis tumor
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Pituitary gland - Pars distalis

6.0 - 6.1

CBA Skin - Melanocyte melanoma - malignant Skin - Melanocyte

0

CBA Skin - Melanocyte melanoma - malignant
  • ionizing radiation
Skin - Melanocyte

0

CBA Skin - Melanocyte melanoma - malignant
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Skin - Melanocyte

0 - 2.0

CBA Thyroid gland - Follicular cell adenoma Thyroid gland - Follicular cell

0

CBA Thyroid gland - Follicular cell adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Thyroid gland - Follicular cell

0

CBA Thyroid gland - Follicular cell adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Thyroid gland - Follicular cell

0 - 4.1

CBA Thyroid gland - Follicular cell hyperplasia Thyroid gland - Follicular cell

50

CBA Thyroid gland - Follicular cell hyperplasia
  • ionizing radiation
Thyroid gland - Follicular cell

26

CBA Thyroid gland - Follicular cell hyperplasia
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Thyroid gland - Follicular cell

20 - 38

CBA Thyroid gland - Medulla - C cell adenoma Thyroid gland - Medulla - C cell

0

CBA Thyroid gland - Medulla - C cell adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Thyroid gland - Medulla - C cell

0

CBA Thyroid gland - Medulla - C cell adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Thyroid gland - Medulla - C cell

0 - 2.0

CBA Uterus - Endometrium - Stroma polyp Uterus - Endometrium - Stroma

0

CBA Uterus - Endometrium - Stroma polyp
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus - Endometrium - Stroma

8.2

CBA Uterus - Endometrium - Stroma polyp
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus - Endometrium - Stroma

6.0 - 10

CBA Uterus - Endometrium adenocarcinoma Uterus - Endometrium

0

CBA Uterus - Endometrium adenocarcinoma
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus - Endometrium

0

CBA Uterus - Endometrium adenocarcinoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus - Endometrium

0 - 4.0

CBA Uterus - Endometrium adenoma Uterus - Endometrium

0

CBA Uterus - Endometrium adenoma
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus - Endometrium

0

CBA Uterus - Endometrium adenoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus - Endometrium

0 - 2.0

CBA Uterus - Endometrium hyperplasia - cystic Uterus - Endometrium

72

CBA Uterus - Endometrium hyperplasia - cystic
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus - Endometrium

90

CBA Uterus - Endometrium hyperplasia - cystic
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus - Endometrium

74 - 90

CBA Uterus - Endometrium tumor Uterus - Endometrium

0

CBA Uterus - Endometrium tumor
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus - Endometrium

0

CBA Uterus - Endometrium tumor
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus - Endometrium

2.0 - 4.0

CBA Uterus polyp - glandular Uterus

0

CBA Uterus polyp - glandular
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus

12

CBA Uterus polyp - glandular
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Uterus

0 - 6.0

CBA Vagina polyp - adenomatous/stromal Vagina

2.0

CBA Vagina polyp - adenomatous/stromal
  • ionizing radiation
Vagina

0

CBA Vagina polyp - adenomatous/stromal
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
Vagina

0

CBA (Unspecified organ) carcinoma (Unspecified organ)

0

CBA (Unspecified organ) carcinoma
  • ionizing radiation
(Unspecified organ)

2.0

CBA (Unspecified organ) carcinoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
(Unspecified organ)

0

CBA (Unspecified organ) lymphoma (Unspecified organ)

0

CBA (Unspecified organ) lymphoma
  • ionizing radiation
(Unspecified organ)

24

CBA (Unspecified organ) lymphoma
  • radiofrequency (RF) radiation
  • ionizing radiation
(Unspecified organ)

20 - 24